Waterways to Reefs Initiative
Geosynthetic solutions, such as geocontainers and tubes, have been part of artificial reef creation, utilizing site soils, dredged material, and other construction-related spoils

After spending a number of years working in Australia’s geosynthetic engineering field, American Joseph Little has returned to the States and founded the environmental consulting firm, Little Environments LLC in Raleigh, North Carolina. Little has brought back considerable insight into the use of geosynthetics in shoreline applications—a major area of engineering in Australia. Following a meeting at a RESTORE Act gathering, he’s found a strong, complementary partner in Florida-headquartered Coastal Hydrology, Inc. for an application that both companies are close to but which they’ve historically approached from different directions: reef stability and health.
The two companies have now embarked on what they are calling the Waterways to Reefs Initiative, an initiative that is combining their experiences and expertise to utilize common spoils, such as from dredging and other coastal civil projects, to better support natural reefs and give municipalities and states more economical options for dealing with the waste their waterway activities generate.
“The nature of this dynamic is that Joe has a lot of experience and insight with the use of geosynthetic containers—application and design,” says Cameron Morris, a Senior Project Manager for Coastal Hydrology. “We bring ecosystem restoration and coastal habitat expertise.”
Waterways to Reefs Initiative
This graphic from the Initiative’s team underscores the point: a construction liability (excavated soils) can be utilized in the creation of an asset (sustainable reef ecosystems).

Little stresses that this new initiative is not about providing standard artificial reefs but stabilizing natural materials like sand and rock to create an “artificially stabilized natural reef.”
“This is the artificial stabilization of natural reefs,” he says. “Are we looking just for short-term stabilization until the natural reef can take over and succeed? Or is something more long term required to truly stabilize it?”
These are questions normally asked of reef restoration and protection, but the solutions have not been so diverse.
Despite Little Environments’ background in geosynthetics, the plan is not to utilize only one approach. “You can’t be tied just to containers,” Little says. “You can consider traditional approaches like rock and aggregate too.”
The point is to select an approach that will allow an ecosystem to be restored and to thrive.
THE ROLE OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN NATURAL REEFS
One of the biggest places in which geosynthetic materials can be used in the stabilization of a natural reef is in containing non-stable material. Unstable materials like sediment can disperse back into reefs, thus burying or smoothing out rock formations. This action reduces reef health and diversity by removing the many small spaces in which so many species of plants and animals live.
Waterways to Reefs Initiative
No matter the mix of technologies used, the end result should be healthy, sustainable, diverse reef life

“In our fishery projects we see how the complexity of reef structure extends the range of species using these habitats,” says Morris. “Nooks and crevices will increase the effectiveness of the habitat itself, what species will utilize it.”
His company has not previously used geosynthetic approaches such as geocontainers or geotextile tubes, but they see how these structures can promote spaces in which a greater diversity of species may find home.
Geocontainers, constructed of sewn geotextile materials and filled usually with local, on-site soils, have been used widely in Australia for shoreline stabilization, reef security, dune construction, and more.
THE GREATER NEED
Both Little and Morris point out that billions of dollars are spent annually on dredging, shoreline stabilization, opening channels, and beach renourishment. These activities, whether necessary for waterway and shoreline health, navigation, or economic growth, produce an enormous amount of spoils. If they must be transported from site, there is a large cost involved. If they wash back into reef systems, either due to improper storage controls on site or by washing into stormwater and waterway systems from wherever they are dumped, there is the compounded cost of injury to reef systems and the renewed need for the same shoreline or waterway repair work.
And with higher fines and more stringent controls being stressed in stormwater management and sediment control regulations, the Waterways to Reefs Initiative seems to be emerging at the right time.
“One of the hurdles is getting everyone to sit down and be more open-minded from the outset,” Little says. He notes that many of the reef-related systems that utilize geosynthetics are somewhat newer—such as the 2002 installation of the enormous Narrowneck Reef in Australia—but significant data and information is available. “It’s more a matter of facilitating a forum of discussion,” he says. “When you get a community involved like they did at Narrowneck, you get great results. But you need to include people. You need discussion.”
“I’m an avid diver,” Morris says, in example. “When you build structures, people will want to go to it. They dive, spearfish, etc. You have to inform a community about what you are doing. You don’t want divers shooting spears through your structure. It really takes a community understanding to be good stewards. Treat a reef with respect. Don’t take anything. Don’t break corals.”
“Reef ecosystems,” he adds, “are fragile.”
Little and Morris see a combination of traditional habitat restoration techniques and geosynthetic engineering as a way to meet in the middle. They blend aesthetics and performance, environmental and geotechnical engineering. And they see this happening as much on new projects as they do as a solution to piggyback on current waterway and reef projects.
It’s an idea that can be applied effectively at any stage, precisely because of the flexibility the initiative stresses.
For the stabilization of reefs, the beneficial re-use of spoils that are already being generated on a large scale may be a boon to giving states and municipalities far more economical ways to meet multiple environmental goals simultaneously.
Succinctly put: “It’s turning a liability into an asset,” Little says.

Download a copy of the Waterways to Initiatives flyer (PDF)
For more information, contact Joe Little (joseph.little@littleenvironments.com), www.littleenvironments.com, or Cameron Morris (cmorris@coastalhydrology.com), http://www.coastalhydrology.com.