The Geosynthetic Insitute (GSI) has accomplished a lot internationally with its generic specifications, often filling a void in or setting the stage for ASTM or ISO standardization developments in geosynthetics. One of the most significant specifications released by GSI’s Geosynthetic Research Institute is the GRI-GM13 Specification for HDPE Geomembranes.
GSI White Paper 32, released early this year, focuses directly on GRI-GM13 and looks at the rationale and background for it.
Download a copy of GRI White Paper 32 here
The authors of the paper, Drs. Grace Hsuan, Robert Koerner, and George Koerner, open with the historical development of the specification, citing important work by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), the EPA, and the movement in the 1990s to assemble a task group to form a truly useful, technically adept, generic specification for high-density polyethylene geomembranes. At the time, the the market for geomembranes was growing quickly, well outpacing full engineering awareness or regulatory readiness.
The growth in applications and the need for specific site situations to be considered in design and acceptance led to a focus on Manufacturing Quality Control (MQC).
White Paper 32 (Rationale and Background for the GRI-GM13 Specification for HDPE Geomembranes) discusses test selection, relationships to previous and current standards and specifications, field data to support GRI-GM13, and much more. It even includes discussion on warranties (5 years, 20 years, and notes on the performance of covered/backfilled geomembranes vs. the financial obligations and risks in insuring installations).
In addition to data tables and notes on tests that have been included or excluded from the document, discussion highlights include:
- Endurance, physical, and mechanical properties
- Carbon black content
- Asperity height
- Puncture resistance
- UV resistance
The author’s write:
With HDPE geomembranes (as with all geosynthetics) material modifications and upgrading by the manufacturing/resin/additive community is an ongoing process. As such, any specification must be reviewed and modified (as required) on a regular basis. GRI-GM13 requires such a review every 24-months, or sooner. The information presented in this paper represents the development of the original document dated June 17, 1997. Over the intervening years, the specification has seen twelve revisions and this white paper reflects the major quantitative changes….